Are you a fan of hot sauce? Whether you prefer a mild kick or a fiery blast of heat, the Scoville scale is a crucial tool in understanding the heat level of your favorite sauce. Developed by Wilbur Scoville in 1912, the Scoville scale assigns a number to a pepper or hot sauce based on how much sugar water is needed to dilute its heat. In this blog post, we'll explore the basics of the Scoville scale, including how it works, popular hot sauces and their corresponding Scoville ratings, and the difference between heat and flavor. Whether you're a seasoned hot sauce enthusiast or just getting started, this guide is your ultimate resource for understanding the heat level of your favorite sauce.
Understanding the Scoville Scale
The Scoville scale is a simple, yet effective way to measure the heat level of hot peppers. It works by diluting a pepper extract with sugar water until the heat is no longer detectable. The number of times the extract is diluted determines the pepper's Scoville rating. For example, a pepper with a Scoville rating of 1,000 would need to be diluted 1,000 times before the heat is no longer noticeable.
There are several units of measurement on the Scoville scale, including Scoville Heat Units (SHU) and American Spice Trade Association (ASTA) pungency units. The most common unit of measurement is Scoville Heat Units (SHU).
The list below gives the typical SHU of common hot peppers. There is never one single value, since the heat level of a pepper can be affected by several variables, including the type of pepper used, growing conditions, and the processing method. For example, a red habanero pepper will generally be hotter than a green habanero pepper.
- Bell pepper: 0 SHU (not spicy at all)
- Poblano: 1,000-2,000 SHU
- Jalapeno: 2,500-8,000 SHU
- Serrano: 10,000-23,000 SHU
- Cayenne: 30,000-50,000 SHU
- Thai chili: 50,000-100,000 SHU
- Habanero: 100,000-350,000 SHU
- Carolina Reaper: 1,500,000+ SHU
So how does this translate to hot sauce? Well, it doesn't! Most hot sauce manufacturers do not test their sauce for a Scoville rating. It's complicated, expensive, and, like peppers, inconsistent. You may be able to find ratings for some of the giant, commercial sauces, but anyone making small batch sauces likely won't have the resources to test. And, remember how we said each pepper can have a range of heat levels? That means your favorite bottle of small batch hot sauce will have a range of heat, too!
Then how can you tell how hot a sauce will be? The easiest way - taste it! But, before you open that bottle, you can make a pretty good guess by the ingredients. The type of pepper is the obvious one that impacts heat level, but that's not all. Check where the hot peppers are in the ingredient list. Ingredients on a label are listed by predominance from highest to lowest, so the closer to the front a pepper is, the spicier it will be. But, the other ingredients will also affect how to taste heat in a sauce, too. Sweet ingredients like sugar, honey, or agave nectar can balance the heat to make a spicy sauce more consumable for those with low tolerances. But, spices like garlic and ginger can actually accentuate the heat!
Understanding the Scoville scale and how peppers are rated can help hot sauce enthusiasts find the right level of heat for their personal taste. Whether you're a seasoned hot sauce enthusiast or just getting started, experimenting with different hot sauces and finding your own heat tolerance is half the fun. Happy saucing!